بررسی تنوع مورفولوژیکی ژنوتیپ‌های گردوی شهرستان آزادشهر

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شاهرود

2 دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گنبد کاووس

3 دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

چکیده

در این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی ژنوتیپ‌های گردو در شهرستان آزادشهر، ۱۰۲ ژنوتیپ گردو از چهار منطقه (وامنان، کاشیدار، رودبار و سیدآباد) با 30 خصوصیت مورفولوژیکی مربوط به میوه، برگ و ... ارزیابی مقدماتی شدند. نتایج آنالیز تشریحی صفات نشان داد که ژنوتیپ های این منطقه تنوع بالایی از لحاظ صفات میوه چون درصد مغز میوه، وزن مغز، میوه، رنگ مغز و آسان جدا شدن مغز از میوه دارند. ژنوتیپ Ka17 و Va31 دارای بیشترین میانگین وزن میوه (79/19گرم)، ژنوتیپ Va31 دارای بیش ترین وزن مغز (4/9 گرم) و ژنوتیپ ROOD4 و Va34 برای صفت آسان جدا شدن مغز از میوه (خیلی آسان) و مطلوب بودن طعم میوه (مطلوب) شاخص بودند. آنالیز کلاستر ژنوتیپها با تولید چهار خوشه اصلی به خوبی توانست ژنوتیپهای منطقه سیدآباد را از سایر ژنوتیپها جدا کند. بیشتر ژنوتیپهای منطقه وامنان و کاشیدار در خوشه یک و دو قرار گرفتند و ژنوتیپ‌های منطقه رودبار در گروه چهارم قرار گرفتند. در خوشه بندی صفات شکل و اندازه میوه و برگ، رنگ ، وزن و درصد مغز میوه تأثیر بیش تری داشتند. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق، تنوع ژنتیکی خوبی در ژنوتیپ های گردوی این منطقه وجود دارد که می تواند به عنوان مواد اصلاحی در اختیار به نژادگران قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphological Diversity among Walnut Genotypes of in Azadshar, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Shamlo 1
  • Mehdi Rezaei 1
  • Abbas Biabani 2
  • Ali Reza Khanahmadi 3
1 Shahrood university
2 Gonbad University
3 Gonbad University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a monoecious tree with a long history of cultivation in Middle East and Europe, is currently one of the major nut crops in Iran. Since Iran is known to be one of walnut origins, a high genetic diversity can be found in this area. Almost all traditional commercial walnut orchards in Iran propagated by seed, therefore these orchards are rich in genetic resources. Morphological studies on the basis of pomological traits can be used for assessment of genetic variability in fruit trees, as well as for selection superior genotypes. Some researchers studied walnut genetic diversity in several areas of Iran but not in Azadshahr region, an area located in north and north-eastern of Iran with high walnut production. As walnut is highly diverse due to open-pollination system and seed propagation, we intend to study genetic diversity of Azadshar walnut genotypes by using morphological and pomological traits.
Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in Azadshare, Golestan province, Iran in 2012. Considering walnut orchards distribution, distance and height above sea level, four areas, namely Vamenan, Kashidar, Roodbar and Sidabad, with the distance of 15 Km apart were selected. Based on tree density and distribution, 15 to 40 trees in each area were labeled, and 102 walnut genotypes were generally evaluated. In each genotype, 30 morphological characteristics related to fruit, leaf and tree-growing habit were studied by using IPGRI walnut descriptor with a few modifications. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software. Correlation coefficient of quantitative and qualitative characteristics was performed by using Pearson and Spearman methods, respectively. Cluster analysis was also performed by Ward method.
Results and Discussion: The results of anatomical characteristics analysis showed that genotypes of this area have high diversity in some pomological traits such as kernel percentage, nut weight, kernel color, easy separation of kernel. Based on the results, genotypes Ka17 and Va31 had the highest average of nut weight (19.79 gr). Va31 genotype had the heaviest kernel (9.4 gr). SID1 genotype had the highest kernel percentage (60.34%). Moreover, e genotypes ROOD4 and Va34 were typified by easy removal of kernel halves (very easy) and fruit flavor desirability (desirable). 26.47% of the genotypes showed very easy separation of kernel from shell. Correlation analysis showed that there was significant correlation among some traits. Fruit weight had high positive correlation with fruit length and diameter, and kernel and shell weight. There was no significant correlation among kernel shape, easy separation of kernel and shell tissue. As the results of cluster analysis of walnut genotypes indicated, clustering of genotypes is mostly similar to collected region and genotypes separated to four main groups in 12.5 distances of 25 in cluster figure. Most walnut genotypes of Vamenan and Kashidat regions, with the exception of ROOD 11 and ROOD 4, were placed in the first and second clusters similar to their geographical distribution. These areas have been the closest to the geographical distance and the height above sea level is not much different from each other. Almost all the genotypes collected from Sidabad region were placed in the third cluster. Sidabad village has high geographical distance from other studied regions, with its elevation is being significantly different from other areas., The majority of Roodbar genotypes, some genotypes of Vamenan and Kashidar, and one genotype of Sidabad (SID4) formed the fourth cluster. Roodbar region was located geographically between Sidabad and Vamenan regions. It has the same elevation as Vamenan and Kashidar have. In general, nut, kernel and leaf characteristics had the major role in clustering of genotypes.
Conclusion: Large genetic diversity in Azadshar walnut genotypes as inferred from morphological markers is advantageous to crop improvement through breeding and selection. Clustering analysis by morphological markers could clearly separate Sidabad walnut genotypes from other populations which have a good similarity with their geographical distribution. According to the results of this study, walnut genotypes collected from Azadshahr region showed a high genetic variation that can be used in breeding programs. Clustering based on morphological characteristics can be an effective method to determine the relationship between genotypes, as well as their relative distance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Clustering
  • Genetic diversity
  • Kernel percentage
  • Superior genotypes
Amiri R., Vahdati K., Mohsenipoor S., Mozaffari M. R., and Leslie C. A. 2010. Correlations between some horticultural traits in walnut. HortScience, 45(11):1690–1694.
Arzani K., Mansouri Ardakan H., and Vezvaei A. 2008. Morphological variation among Persian walnut (Juglans regia L) genotype from central Iran. New Zealand Journal of Cropand Horticulteral Science, 36: 159-168.
Aslantas R. 2006. Identification of superior walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes in north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. New Zealand journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 34: 231-237.
Balci I., Balta F., Kazankaya A., and Sen S. M. 2001. Promising Native walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.) of the East Black Sea region of Turkey. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 55(4): 204-208.
Caglarirmak N. 2003. Biochemical and physical properties of some walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.). Nahrung,1: 28-32.
Ebrahimi A., Fattahi Moghadam M., Zamani Z., and Vahdati K. 2009. An investigation on genetic diversity of 608 Persian walnut accessions for screening of some genotypes of superior traits. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 40 (4): 83-94. (In Persian with English abstact)
Ehteshamnia A., Sharifani M., Vahdati K., and Erfani, V. 2001. Investigation of morphological diversity among native populations of walnut (Juglans regia L) in Golestan province. Journal of Plant Production, 16(3):29-47. . (In Persian with English abstact)
Eskandar S. ،Hassani D. ،and Abdi A. 2005. Investigation on genetic diversity of Persian walnut and evaluation of promising genotypes. Acta Horticulturae, 705: 159-163.
FAO. 2011. FAO statistical yearbook. Agricultural production ، Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (http: faostat.fao.org.site.291.default.aspx).
Forde H. I. and McGranaham G. H. 1993. A new walnut cultivar Malizia. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, USA، 311: 46-49
Ghanadha M. R., Zahravi M., and Vahdati K. 2003. Breeding HorticulturalCrops. Dibagaran Tehran Press, 344p. (Translated in Persian)
Haghjooyan R., Ghareyazi B., Sanei Shariat-Panahi M., and Khalighi A. 2005. Investigation of genetic variation walnut of some region of Iran by using quantitative morphological characters. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 69: 22-30. (In Persian with English abstract).
Malvolti M. E., Paciucci M., Cannata F., and Fineschi S. 1993. Genetic variation in Italian populations of Juglans regia L. Acta Horticulturae, 311:86-94.
Mohsenipoor S., Vahdati K., Amiri R., and Mozaffari M. 2010. Study of the genetic structure and gene flow in Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) using SSR markers. Acta Horticulturae, 861:133-142.
McGranahan G. H., Charles A., Leslie C. A., Philips H. A., and Dandaker A. 1998. Walnut Propagation. In: D. Ramos (Ed.). Walnut Production Manual .University of California, DANRPubl. Davis ،71-83.
McGranahanp G. P., and Leslie C. 1990. Walnuts (Juglans). Acta Horticulturae, 290: 907-951.
Radnia H. 1996. Rootstock for Fruit Crops. Agriculture Education Press, Karaj 637p. (In Persian with English abstact).
Rezaee R., Hassani Gh., Hassani D., and Vahdati K. 2008. Morphobiological characteristics of some newly selected walnut genotypes from seedling collection of Kahriz- Orumia. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 9(3); 205-214. (In Persian with English abstract)
Sharma O. C., and Sharma S. D. 2001. Genetic Divergence in seedling trees of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) for various metric nut and kernel characters in Himachal Pradesh. Scientia Horticulturae, 88(2): 163-171.
Solar A., and Stampar F. 2004. Evaluation of Some Perspective Walnut Genotype in Slovenia. Acta Horticulturae, 705p.
Tsmouris G., Hatziantoniou S., and Demetzos C. 2002. Lipid analysis of Greek walnut oil (Juglans regia L.). Natur frosch, 57: 51- 56.
Vanhanen L. P., and Savage G. P. 2006. The use of peroxide value as measure of quality for walnut stored at five different temperatures using three different types of packaging. Food chemistry, 99: 64-69.
Vahdati K., Mohseni Pourtaklu S., Karimi R., Barzehkar R., Amiri R., Mozaffari M., and Keith W. 2014. Genetic diversity and gene flow of some Persian walnut populations in southeast of Iran revealed by SSR markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 301(2): 691-699.
Yarilgac T., Koyuncu F., Koyuncu M. A., Kazankaya A., and Sen S. M. 2001. Some promising walnut selections (Juglans regia L.) Acta Horticulturae, 544: 93-96.