عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) is a perennial herb which is cultivated in temperate regions of Asia, Europe and America. The essential oil of hyssop is widely used as traditional drug in some of the parts of Asia and Europe to treat respiratory diseases. Hyssop is also used in food, pharmaceutical, flavor and cosmetic industries throughout the world. It is mainly used for antispasmodic, stomachic, antifungal, relax spasm and cough treatment. Applying organic fertilizers and biofertilizers such as compost, vermicompost and nitrogen fixing bacteria contain Azotobacter and Azospirillum has led to a decrease in chemical fertilizers consumption and has provided high quality agricultural products. Several studies have shown that organic and bio-fertilizers application such as vermicompost and nitrogen fixing bacteria can increase essential oil content of medicinal plants of dill, basil and fennel.The main object of this work was to record the best suitable treatment of organic and biological fertilizer to obtain highest yield of Hyssop.
Materials and Methods: A field experiment, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with eight treatments and three replications at research field of the Agriculture Company of Ran, Firouzkuh, Iran during the growing season of 2012. The treatments were (1) 20 t/ha compost, (2) 12 t/ha vermicompost, (3) biofertilizer [inoculated seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum], (4) 10 t/ha compost + 6 t/ha vermicompost, (5) 20 t/ha compost + biofertilizer, (6) 12 t/ha vermicompost + biofertilizer, (7) 10 t/ha compost + 6 t/ha vermicompost + biofertilizer and (8) control [without fertilizer application]. Inoculation was carried out by immersing the hyssop seeds in the cells suspension of 108 CFU/ml for 15 min. The required quantities of compost and vermicompost were applied and incorporated to the top 5 cm layer of soil in the experimental beds before planting of hyssop seeds. Each experimental plot was 3 m long by 2.28 m wide with the spacing of 15 cm between the plants and 38 cm between the rows. There was a space of one meter between the plots and 2 meters between replications. Hyssop seeds were directly sown by hand. There was no incidence of pest or disease on hyssop during the experiment. Weeding was done manually and the plots were irrigated weekly (as trickle irrigation system). All necessary cultural practices and plant protection measures were followed uniformly for all the plots during the entire period of experiment. In this study, some morphological traits and yield hyssop including plant height, branch no./plant, fresh weight of plant, dry weight of plant, herb fresh yield, herb dried yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were evaluated. In order to determine herb fresh yield and herb dry yield, 1 m-2 plants were used at the harvest time (full blooming). For determine the essential oil content (%), About 100 g dried herb of hyssop (dried in shadow) as sample from the each plot were selected and then were subjected to hydro-distillation (Clevenger type apparatus) for 3 hours. Essential oil yield also was calculated by using essential oil content and herb dried yield. Analysis of variance by using SAS software and mean comparisons by Least Significant Difference Test (LSD) (at the 5% probability level) was done.
Results and Discussion: The present results have shown that the highest plant height and branch no/plant in treatment of integrated application of 20 t/ha compost,biofertilizer,the maximum fresh weight of plant and herb fresh yield in treatment of application of 20 t/ha compost were obtained. Also, the highest dry weight of plant in treatment of integrated application of 10 t/ha compost, 6 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer and the highest herb dried yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield in treatment of integrated application of 12 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer were obtained. Vermicompost application through high ability for absorption of mineral nutrients like N, P and K by plants and then increase of biomass amount has a positive effect on secondary metabolites concentration such as essential oil and subsequently the enhanced essential oil content. Increased essential oil yield in treatment of 12 tonnes vermicompost per hectare and biofertilizer can be owing to the improvement of yield attributes such as herb dry yield and essential oil content.
Conclusion:Integrated application of organic manures and biofertilizer positively influenced morphological traits and yield of hyssop, as the highest herb dry yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were obtained in treatment of integrated application of 12 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer and treatment of integrated application of 10 t/ha compost, 6 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer. On the base of research results, organic amendments and biofertilizer application can be caused in improvement of morphological characters and yield of hyssop.