تاثیر کود‌های آلی، معدنی و زیستی بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد دانه گیاه کاسنی پاکوتاه (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 پژوهشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاربرد کودهای آلی، معدنی و زیستی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه گیاه کاسنی پاکوتاه آزمایشی در سال زراعی 91-1390، به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام گرفت .در این آزمایش فاکتور کودهای آلی و شیمیایی در چهار سطح (چهار تن در هکتار کمپوست زباله شهری، چهار تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست،130 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره و عدم مصرف کود (شاهد)) و فاکتورکود زیستی در دو سطح (کود زیستی بیوسولفور + 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود گوگرد خالص و عدم مصرف کود زیستی بیوسولفور و گوگرد (شاهد)) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد اثرات ساده و متقابل فاکتورهای مورد مطالعه، روی صفات مورفولوژیک (ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه در بوته، تعداد شاخه‌های فرعی در بوته)، اجزای عملکرد دانه مانند، تعداد دانه در گل‌آذین، وزن هزار دانه، وزن دانه در بوته، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت معنی‌دار نبود. نتایج جدول تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تعداد گل‌آذین در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته و عملکرد بیولوژیک (05/0 p

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farima Doaei 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 1
  • Reza Ghorbani 1
  • Ahmad Balandary 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Research Institute for Food Sciences
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In order to response to greater demand for wild medicinal plants consumption, it has been recommended that wild medicinal plants can be brought into cultivation systems. Cichorium pumilum Jacq. is an annual species of Asteraceae family, that has a long history of herbal use and is especially of great value for its tonic effects upon the liver and digestive tract. The root and the leaves of chicory are digestive, hypoglycemic, diuretic, laxative and tonic. Using chemical fertilizers can be easily lost from soils through fixation, leaching or gas emission that can lead to reduced fertilizer efficiency. The applications of organic fertilizers such as compost and vermicompost can be considered as a good management practice to increase cropping system sustainability, reducing soil erosion and improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil microorganisms have a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter breakdown and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur.
Materials and Methods: For evaluating the effects of organic, mineral and biological fertilizers on seed yield and yield components of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.), a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (36016/ N, 59036/ E, elevation 985 m) during growing season of 2011-2012. The experimental layout was factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (compost 4 t/ha, vermicompost 4 t/ha, urea fertilizer 130 kg/ha and control) and biological fertilizer (biosulfur biofertilizer + pure sulfur 100 kg/ ha and control). Before conducting the experiment, soil sample were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm, and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and also used compost and vermicompost were determined. All fertilizer treatments were added to the soil and mixed well with the soil before sowing. In order to avoid leaching, all urea fertilizer was divided to two parts and these were used in two dates during the growth period. Cichorium pumilum Jacq seeds were hand sown in 2.5 ×4 m plots in five rows and with plant density 20 plants m−2. Before harvesting the grain, five plants were randomly selected in each plot from 2500 cm2 (50×50cm) and their characteristics and traits such as plant height, number of tiller per plant, number of branch per plant, number of inflorescence per plant, number of seed per inflorescence, number of seed per plant and seed weight were determined. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan multiple range test at 0.05 level were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).
Results and Discussion: The Results indicated that studied factors and their interactions had not significant effect on morphological traits (plant height, number of tiller per plant, number of branch per plant) and on yield components of seed such as: number of seed per inflorescence, 1000-seed weight, seed weight per plant, seed yield and harvest index (HI). The results showed that organic and chemical fertilizers had significant effect on number of inflorescence per plant, number of seed per plant, biological yield (p< 0.05).The highest number of inflorescence per plant, number of seed per plant and seed weight per plant were observed in chemical fertilizer + biosulfur biofertilizer treatment. The highest seed yield (1489 kg.ha-1) obtained from compost + biosulfur biofertilizer treatment. Chemical fertilizer + biosulfur biofertilizer treatment (7576 kg.ha-1) produced the highest biological yield. It seems that because of high solubility of chemical fertilizer, nutrients are immediately available to the plants therefore, plants can use nutrients of chemical fertilizer faster than other fertilizers. Biofertilizer and organic fertilizer can improve soil properties and also through nutrient supply, improves plant growth.
Conclusion: In this study, it seems that the morphological traits (plant height, number of tiller and number of branches per plant) and yield components such as the number of seeds per inflorescence and seed weight were influenced by genetic characteristics and fertilizer treatments had little effect on mentioned traits and the plant was able with nutrient available in soil, overcome its needs. Overall in this study, results showed that the use of compost combination with biosulfur biofertilizer had positive effect on studied traits of dwarf chicory and use of them can be an effective step towards sustainable production and replacement use of chemical fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biosulfur biofertilizer
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Compost
  • Vermicompost
1- Aggelides S., and Londra P. 2000. Effects of compost produced from town wastes and sewage sludge on the physical properties of a loamy and a clay soil. Bioresource Technology, 71:253-259.
2- Ahmadian A., Ghanbari A., and Glvy M. 2006. Effect application of manure on quantitative and qualitative yield and chemical indicators essential oil Cumin. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 4(2):207-216. (In Persian)
3- Al Khateeb W., Hussein E., Qouta L., Alu’datt M., Al-Shara B., and Abu-zaiton A. 2012. In vitro propagation and characterization of phenolic content along with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Cichorium pumilum Jacq. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), 110:103-110.
4- Aqaiy A.H., and Ahsanzadh A. 2011. Effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen on yield and some physiological parameters of oilseed Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 42(3)291-299. (In Persian with English abstract)
5- Azaizeh H., Ljubuncic P., Portnaya I., Said O., Cogan U., and Bomzon A. 2005. Fertilization-induced changes in growth parameters and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants used in traditional Arab medicine. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2:549-556.
6- Balandari A. 2011. Stydy some echophysiological characteristics and investigation on cultivation aspects of dwarf chicory (Chicorium pomilum Jacq.) in Mashhad. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
7- Chen J. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustained Management of the soil-rhizosphere system for efficient crop production and fertilizer use, p. 20.
8- Dehghani Meshkani M., Naghdibadi H., Darzi M.T., MehrAfarin A., Rezazadeh S.H., and Kdkhoda Z. 2011. Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Quantity and Quality yield of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10(2):35-48. (In Persian)
9- Kamyestani N. 2013. Qualitative and Quantitative yield of anisum (Pimpinella anisum) in response to fertilizer managements. M.Sc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
10- Khaghani S., Shakouri M.J., Mafakheri S., and Aslanpour M. 2012. Effect of different chemical fertilizers on chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 5: 1835-1933.
11- Mohammadian M. and Malakouti M.J. 2002. Effect two of compost on soil physical and chemical properties and corn yield. Journal of Soil and Water Science 16(2):143-150. (In Persian with English Summary)
12- Moradi R., Rezvani Moqhaddam P., Nasiri Mahallati M. and Lakzian A. 2009. The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizer on yield, yield components and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 7(2):625-635. (In Persian with English abstract)
13- Patel J., Upadhyay P. and Usadadia V. 2002. The effect of various agronomic practices on the yield of chicory (Cichorium intybus). The Journal of Agricultural Science, 135: 271-278.
14- Pushparaj P., Low H., Manikandan J., Tan B. and Tan C. 2007. Anti-diabetic effects of Cichorium intybus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111:434-430.
15- Said Nezhad H. and Rezvani Moghaddam P. 2010. Evaluation the effect of application of compost, vermicompost and manure fertilizer on yield, yield components and essential oil percentage of Cuminum cyminum L. Journal of Horticultural Science, 24(2):142-148. (In Persian)
16- Shaalan M. N. 2005. Effect of compost and different sources of biofertilizers, on borage plants (Borago officinalis). Egypt Journal of Agriculture Research, 83: 271-284.
17- Tahami S.M.K. 2010. Evaluation of the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). M.Sc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
18- Valdrighi M.M., Pera A., Agnolucci M., Frassinetti S., Lunardi D. and Vallini G. 1996. Effects of compost-derived humic acids on vegetable biomass production and microbial growth within a plant )Cichorium intybus)-soil system: a comparative study. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 58: 133-144.
19- Wu S., Cao Z., Li Z., Cheung K., and Wong M. 2005. Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma, 125: 155-166.
20- Younesian A. 2011. Sustainable management of Nutrition in fennel cultivation (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). M.Sc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)