تأثیرکاربرد توأم ترکیبات کلسیم‌دار و پلی‌آمین‌های آزاد در زمان‌های مختلف رشدی بر برخی مشکلات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد پسته رقم "احمدآقایی"

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه باهنر کرمان

چکیده

پسته یکی از مهمترین محصولات باغبانی کشور است که اهمیت زیادی در صادرات غیرنفتی و ارز آوری دارد. وجود برخی مشکلات فیزیولوژیکی از قبیل ریزش جوانه های گل، پوکی، ناخندانی، ترک خوردگی و بدشکلی باعث کاهش عملکرد این محصول شده است. در این پژوهش تأثیر محلول پاشی توأم برخی ترکیبات کلسیم دار (نیترات کلسیم و کلریدکلسیم با غلظت 5/0 درصد) و پلی آمین های آزاد (پوترسین، اسپرمیدین و اسپرمین با غلظت 5/0 میلی مولار) در مراحل زمانی مختلف، دو هفته بعد از تمام گل (مرحله اول)، شش هفته بعد از تمام گل و قبل از سخت شدن پوست استخوانی (مرحله دوم) و مراحل توأم اول و دوم بر مشکلات ذکر شده و عملکرد پسته رقم "احمدآقایی" بررسی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای نیترات کلسیم به همراه اسپرمین و اسپرمیدین در مراحل توأم اول و دوم محلول پاشی باعث کاهش ریزش جوانه های گل گردید. کمترین درصد پوکی مربوط به تیمارهای نیترات کلسیم به همراه اسپرمین در مرحله اول و همچنین مراحل توأم اول و دوم محلول پاشی می باشد. محلول پاشی نیترات کلسیم به همراه اسپرمین در هر دو مرحله باعث کاهش بدشکلی میوه شد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد نیترات کلسیم به همراه اسپرمیدین در مراحل توأم اول و دوم سبب کاهش ترک خوردگی و افزایش خندانی و عملکرد می گردد. با توجه به نتایج مشخص گردید که کاربرد توأم ترکیبات کلسیم دار با پلی آمین ها در مراحل توأم اول و دوم سبب کاهش مشکلات فیزیولوژیکی و در نهایت افزایش عملکرد پسته رقم "احمدآقایی" می گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Spray Application of Calcium Compounds Combined with Free Polyamines at Different Growth Stages on Physiological Problems and Yield of ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamid mohammadi 1
  • gholamhosein davary nejad 1
  • masood khezri 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Pistachio is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran, USA, Turkey and some Mediterranean countries. Some physiological problems such as abscission of inflorescence buds, blankness, non-splitting, early splitting, cracking and nut deformation reduce the pistachio yield and quality. A proper nutrition management of pistachio orchard might decrease the physiological problems and increasing the yield. Calcium is an essential plant macro-nutrient that has several distinct functions within plants. These functions can be divided into main areas including effects on membranes, enzymes, cell walls, and interactions of calcium with phytohormones. Free polyamines (putrescine, spermine, spermidine), are the widely distributed of N containing organic molecules binding to the intracellular anions (DNA, RNA, chromatin and proteins). They are also known to possess several regulatory functions. In plants, they have been associated with regulating many physiological processes, such as organogenesis, embryogenesis, floral initiation and development, leaf senescence, fruit development and ripening, and abiotic and biotic plant stress responses. Although the spray application of calcium compound and free polyamine has been investigated separately, application of calcium compounds combined with free polyamines has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined treatments of calcium and free polyamines on decreasing the physiological problems and improving the yield of ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ pistachio trees.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out in a commercial 20-year old ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ pistachio orchard in Rafsanjan, Iran. It was arranged as factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications. The treatments were control, calcium compounds (calcium nitrate and calcium chloride at concentration of 0.5%) combined with free polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine at concentration of 0.5 mM). Spraying were applied at different growth stages including two weeks after full bloom (stage 1), six weeks after full bloom (just before endocarp hardening) (stage 2) and the combination sprays of stage 1 and stage 2. Different traits including the percentages of abscission of inflorescence buds, cracking, blankness, early splitting, nut deformation, non-splitting and splitting as well as yield, leaf area and vegetative growth were measured. The individual shoot was the experimental unit and analyses of variance were performed using the General Linear Models procedure of SAS. Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test (P < 0.05).
Results and Discussion: Results showed that the main physiological problems of pistachio crop were decreased by application of calcium compounds combined with free polyamines. Spray application of the mentioned treatments was more effective at combined stages of 1 and 2 rather than the stages separately. It was resulted that calcium nitrate combined with spermine and spermidine treatments at combined stages of 1 and 2 reduced the abscission of inflorescence buds, blankness, nut deformation and non-splitting. Also, it was found that calcium nitrate combined with spermidine at combined stages of 1 and 2 reduced the percentage of early splitting while splitting and yield were increased. Spray application of free polyamines combined with calcium compounds did not affect the length and diameter of current-year shoots but significantly increased the leaf area. It seems that calcium plays a key role in conjunction with free polyamines especially spermidine and spermine in decreasing the abscission of inflorescence buds via improving the stability of cell wall and preventing abscission layer formation. It also seems that polyamines reduce the abscission of inflorescence buds by antagonism with ethylene, possibly by competing for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a common precursor of both plant bioregulators. Increasing the shoot yield and decreasing the percentage of blankness might be due to improving leaf photosynthesis as well as regulating kernel growth and development. It was found that free polyamines and calcium might promote a regulatory system against environmental stresses especially heat, drought and salinity which are the main concerns of pistachio growers.
Conclusion: According to the results, the application of calcium compounds combined with free polyamines could reduce the physiological problems and increased the yield of ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ pistachio. Among calcium treatments, calcium nitrate was significantly more effective than calcium chloride. In the case of free polyamines, both spermidine and spermine were more effective than putrescine. It was concluded that application of calcium nitrate combined with spermidine or spermine at both stages (stage 1 + 2) was the most effective treatments in reducing physiological problems and increasing the yield of pistachio trees.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Inflorescence bud abscission
  • Spermidine
  • Spermine
  • Splitting
1- Acar I., and Eti S. 2007. Abscission of pistachio flowers and fruits as affected by different pollinators. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 10: 2920-2924.
2- Afshari H., Talaie A., Mohammadi Moghadam M., and Panahi B. 2008. Differences of elements in early splitting of pistachio nuts and the effect of phenolic compounds and gallic acid on rate. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 23 (1): 10-17. (in Persian with English abstract).
3- Angelini R., Tisi A., Rea G., Chen M.M., Botta M., Federico R., and Cona A. 2008. Involvement of polyamine oxidase in wound healing. Plant Physiology, 146: 162–177.
4- Arias M., Carbonell J., and Agusti M. 2005. Endogenous free polyamines and their role in fruit set of low and high parthenocarpic ability citrus cultivars. Journal of Plant Physiology, 162, 845–853.
5- Davarynejad G.H., Azizi M., and Akheratee M. 2008. Effect of foliar nutrition on quality, quantity and of alternate bearing of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Journal of Horticultural Science, 23 (2): 1-10. (in Persian with English abstract).
6- Desouky I., Haggag L., Abd el-migeed M., Kishk Y., and El-hady E. 2009. Effect of boron and calcium nutrients spary on fruit set, oil content and oil quality of some olive cultivers. World Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 5:180-185.
7- Enas A.M.A., Sarrwy S.M.A., and Hassan H.S.A. 2010. Improving Canino Apricot Trees Productivity by Foliar Spraying with Polyamines. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 6(9): 1359-1365.
8- Fabbri A., Ferguson L., and Polito V.S. 1998. Crop load related deformity of developing Pistacia vera cv `Kerman' nuts. Scientia Horticulturae, 77: 219–234.
9- Ferguson L., Beede R.H., Freeman M.W., Haviland D.R., Holtz B.A., and Kallsen C.E. 2005. Pistachio Production Manual (4th ed.). Fruit and Nut Research and Information Cen‌ter, University of California, Davis, California.
10- Ferry V., Rombaldi C., Silva J., Pegoraro C., Nora L., Antunes P., Girardi C., and Tibola C. 2008. Boron and calsium sprayed on ‘Fuyu’ persimmon tree prevents skin cracks, groove and browning of fruit during cold storage. Ciencia Rural, Santa Maria, 38:2146-2150.
11- Gastol M., and Domagla I. 2006. Effect of foliar sprays on potassium, magnesium and calcium distribution in fruit of the pear. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 14:169-176.
12- Hashimoto K., and Kudla J. 2011. Calcium decoding mechanisms in plants. Biochimie, 93 (12), 2054–2059.
13- Hepler P.K., and Winship L.J. 2010. Calcium at the cell wall-cytoplast interface. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 52 (2): 147–160.
14- Khayyat M., Khanizadeh S., Tafazoli E., Rajaee S., Kholdebarin B., and Emam Y. 2011. Effects of different calcium forms on gas exchange activities, water usage and macronutrient uptake by strawberry plants under sodium chloride stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 34 (3): 427-435.
15- Khezri M., Talaie A., Javanshah A., and Hadavi F. 2010. Effect of exogenous application of free polyamines on physiological disorders and yield of‟Kaleh-Ghoochi‟ pistachio shoots (Pistacia vera L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 125: 270-276.
16- Liu J.H., Nada K., Pang X.M., Honda C., Kitashiba H., and Moriguchi T. 2006. Role of polyamines in peach fruit development and storage. Tree of Physiology, 26: 791-798.
17- Moschou P.N., Wu J., Cona A., Tavladoraki P., Angelini R., and Roubelakis-Angelakis K.A. 2012. The polyamines and their catabolic products are significant players in the turnover of nitrogenous molecules in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63 (14): 5003–5015.
18- Russos P.A., Pontikis C.A., and Zoti M.A. 2004. The role of free polyamines in the alter‌nate-bearing of pistachio (Pistacia vera cv. Pontikis). Trees, 18: 61–69.
19- Sajadian H., and Hokmabadi H. 2011. Investigation on effects of calcium nitrate, calcium sulfate (soil application) and calcium chelate as foliar spray on endocarp lesion disorder and some qualitative characteristics of pistachio nut cv. “Akbari” International Journal of Nuts and Related Sciences, 2(3): 23-28
20- Shuraki Y.D., and Sedgley M. 1996. Fruit development of Pistacia vera (Anacardiaceae) in relation to embryo abortion and abnormalities at maturity. Australian Journal of Botany, 44: 35–45.
21- Spann T.M., Beede R.H., and DeJong T.M. 2009. Contributions of short- and long-shoots to yield of ‘Kerman’ pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 121: 495–500.
22- Takahashi Y. 2016. The role of polyamines in plant disease resistance. Environmental Control in Biology, 54 (1): 17-21.
23- Talaie A., Khezri M., and Javanshah A. 2010.Effect of spray application of free polyamines on prevention of some physiological problems in pistachio, ‘Kalle-Ghoochi’ variety. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 41 (4): 383-391. (in Persian with English abstract).