بررسی تأثیر پوشش‌پلی‌اتیلن و تیمار آب‌گرم بر عمر انبارمانی و کیفیت میوه انار (رقم پوست نازک قندهاری)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد فردوسی

چکیده

کاهش ‌وزن، خسارت سرمازدگی و پوسیدگی‌های انباری همیشه به عنوان مهم‌ترین موانع بر سر راه انبارمانی و صادرات میوه‌های انار مطرح بوده‌ است. این عوامل عمدتاً به علت فعالیت متابولیکی، حساسیت میوه به سرما، نفوذ و گسترش قارچ‌های ساپروفیتی یا پارازیتی به داخل میوه انار در زمان قبل از برداشت، برداشت میوه و یا پس از برداشت آن شکل می‌گیرند. در تحقیق حاضر تأثیر آب گرم با دو دمای متفاوت (25 و 50 درجه سانتی‌گراد)، همچنین استفاده و یا عدم استفاده از پوشش پلی اتیلن (LDPE) با ضخامت 20 میکرون برکیفیت انبارمانی، درصد پوسیدگی، شاخص سرمازدگی، کاهش وزن و خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی میوه انار رقم پوست نازک قندهاری مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. بدین منظور میوه‌های انار تیمار شده به مدت 4 ماه تحت شرایط دمایی1±5 درجه سانتی گراد و رطوبت نسبی 90- 85 درصد نگهداری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که پس از 120 روز انبارمانی، اثر پوشش پلی اتیلن و تیمار آب گرم (50 درجه سانتی گراد) بر شاخص سرمازدگی، کاهش وزن، پوسیدگی و حفظ کیفیت معنی‌دار (01/0>p) بود. بیشترین درصد‌کاهش وزن، شاخص سرمازدگی و شاخص پوسیدگی به ترتیب با میانگین 37، 7/24  و 12/3 درصد در تیمار بدون پوشش و آب 25 درجه سانتی‌گراد و کمترین میزان درصد کاهش وزن و شاخص سرمازدگی در پوشش پلی اتیلن و آب 50 درجه سانتی‌گراد به ترتیب 6/1 و 2/2 مشاهده شد. تیمار با آب گرم 50 درجه سانتی‌گراد موجب کاهش میزان پوسیدگی قارچی حاصل از کاربرد پوشش پلی‌اتیلن در پایان دوره انبارمانی (4 ماه) شد. به طور کلی پوشش پلی‌اتیلن باعث حفظ رطوبت در اطراف میوه‌ها،  تیمار آب گرم باعث سفتی بافت پوست و ضدعفونی میوه‌ها گردید، در نتیجه باعث حفظ کیفیت و ماندگاری بیشتر میوه‌ها می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Polyethylene Packaging and Hot Water Treatment on Shelf Life and Quality of Pomegranate Fruits Cultivar (Poost Nazuk Kandahar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • bahram abedy 1
  • Mohammad Halim Kazemi 1
  • Mahmod Shoor 1
  • Yahya selahvarzi 2
1 Ferdowdi university
2 Ferdowsi university
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit crop of the world which native to Iran and Afghanistan. Pomegranate is produced throughout the Afghanistan. However, the most pomegranate orchard is in the south-west and the west region of  Afghanistan, in the provinces of Kandahar, Helmand, Nimroz, Farah, Kapisa, Nangarhar and Herat. The major storage problems are desiccation of the fruit resulting in a brownish colored tough peel and arils, weight loss, chilling injury and fungi decay. Further, the storage temperature recommended for pomegranates has varied from 0 to 10°C from two weeks to seven months depending on the cultivar. Storing pomegranate at low temperature with packaging minimized chilling injury and maintained fruit quality. Heat treatment causes changes in fruit ripening, such as the inhibition of ethylene synthesis and action of cell wall degrading enzymes, due to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. Pre-storage hot water treatment increases fruit quality and reduce fruit weight loss and chilling injury in pomegranate.
Method and Materials: Fully mature, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits cv. ‘PoostNazuk Kandahar’ was harvested form Kandahar province in 2014. They were immediately transported by plane to the laboratory of Horticultural Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Iran. After washing and initial measurements, half of fruits were immersed in a hot water (50 and 25°C) bath for three minutes. Hot water treatment fruits were packaged in plastic zippers and the others half were without packaging. All the treated fruits were transferred to cold storage at 5±1°C and a relative humidity of 85 to 90% for four months. Every 30 days each the physico-chemical characteristics of pomegranate were evaluated. Experimental design was split factorial by completely randomized design with four replications. All analyses were performed with statistical software (JMP. 8.0, 2009). 
Result and Discussion: The results demonstrated that the combination of hot water (HW) and polyethylene packaging was more effective in extending shelf life and reducing pomegranate fruit decay than the application of each treatment alone during long-term cold storage. The HW (50°C) treatment in combination with polyethylene packaging had significant effect (p< 0.01) on fruit weight loss and chilling injury index (CI) compared with the water (25°C) and without packaging during storage time. Most of fruit weight loss and CI were 37% and 24.7% that related to water (25°C) treatment and non-packaging, and the lowest were in order 1.6% and 2.2 % related to polyethylene packaging and HW (50 C°) treatments. Reduction in weight loss and CI by polyethylene packaging have been reported by other researchers [3, 4, 5, 9, 25 and 31]. HW (50°C) treatments reduced the expanding of fungi decay significant (p< 0.01) caused by use of polyethylene packaging after four months storage. This is agreement with Talaie et al [4], Artés et al [5] and Moradinezhad and Khayyat [31]. The effect of packaging on total phenolic compounds was also significant (p< 0.01). The total phenolic compounds of pomegranates showed an increase during the 120 days storage. Fruit without packaging had higher (443.25 mg/Lit) total phenolic compounds than the fruit stored in polyethylene package (332 mg/Lit), reaching a maximum accumulation, which is in agreement with the findings of other researchers [15, 24, and 38]. The HW treatment alone or in combination with packaging had no significant effect on TSS, TA and pH as compared to the water (25°C) and without packaging. At the end of storage, there was a significant increase in TSS and pH, and significant decreased in TA fruit juice after 4-month storage. Our finding is in agreement with previous reports [4, 5, 25 and 34], however was in contrast with the results of Nanda et al [33] who reported higher retention of TA in shrink film wrapped pomegranates, when compared to control fruit. One of the reasons for increase in TSS probably is decrease of fruit juice and its increase in concentration, during the storage time [1]. Rastegari et al [2] reported the increase in pH of fruit juice during storage, which is probably due to the breakdown of organic acids during the respiratory process.
Conclusions: Combined pre-storage treatments of HW and polyethylene package have more benefits than their individual application on maintaining quality and extending pomegranate fruit shelf life in prolonged cold storage. The pomegranate fruit cv. ‘PoostNazuk Kandahar’ could be stored for at least 20 weak under this combined treatment, effectively extending their marketing period with less decay. However, the unpackaged fruit, spoiled totally by 13 weak. Therefore, it is concluded that a combination of HW and polyethylene package treatment is a simple and low-cost method that has the ability to improve quality and postharvest life of pomegranate fruit cv. ‘PoostNazuk Kandahar’ during cold storage. However, more research is needed in this regard.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hot Water treatment
  • Kandahar Pomegranate
  • Polyethylene Package
  • Shelf Life
1. Arte´s F., Tudela J. A., and Villaescusa R. 2000. Thermal postharvest treatments for improving pomegranate quality and shelf life. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 245-251.
2. Ben- Yehoshua, Sh. 1985. Individual seal packaging of fruits and vegetables in plastic film, new post harvest technique. Horticultural Science, 20(1): 32-37.
3. Caleb O.J., Opara U.L., Mahjan P. V., Manley M., Mokwena L., and Tredoux A. G.j. 2013. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and storage temperature on volatile composition and postharvest life of minimally-porcessed pomegranate arils (cvs. Acco. And Herskawitz). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 79: 61-54.
4. D’Aquino S., Palma A., Schirra M., Continella A., Tribulato E., and La Malfa S. 2010. Influence of film wrapping and fludioxonil application on quality of pomegranate fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technolog, 55, 121–128.
5. Danişman G., Arslan E., and Toklucu A. K. 2015. Kinetic Analysis of Anthocyanin Degradation and Polymeric Colour Formation in Grape Juice during Heating. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 33: 103-108.
6. Dhall R. K., Sharma S. R., and Mahajan B. V. C. 2012. Effect of shrink wrap packaging for maintaining quality of cucumber during storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49: 495-499.
7. Echeverria E., and Valich J. 1989. Enzymes of sugar and acid metabolism in stored Valencia organs. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 114, 445–449.
8. Elyatem S.M., and Kader A.A. 1984. Post-harvest physiology and storage behavior of pomegranate fruits. Scientia Horticulture, 24: 287-298.
9. Etherlands N., and Weusthuis M. 2009. Afghan Pomegranates in the Netherlands: Designing an International Pomegranate Supply Chain: an Inquiry Into the Design of the Pomegranate Supply Chain from Afghanistan to the Netherlands. Van Hall Larenstein, University of Applied Sciences.
10. Garcia J.M., Aguilera C., and Albi M.A. 1995. Postharvest Heat Treatment on Spanish Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Tudla). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43:1489–1492.
11. Ghatge P.U., Kulkarni D.N., Rodge A. B., and Kshirsagar R.B. 2005. Studies on post – Harvest treatments for increasing storage life of pomegranate. Journal of Soils & Crops, 15: 319-322.
12. Gil M., and Tomas B. 2000. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48:4581- 4589.
13. Glozer K., and Ferguson L. 2008. Pomegranate Production in Afghanistan. UCDAVIS.Coll. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, P: 23.
14. Hamauzu Y. 2006. Role and evolution of fruit phenolic compounds during ripening and storage. Stewart Postharvest Review, (2) 2:1-7.
15. Holland D., Hatib K., and Bar-Ya'akov I. 2009. Pomegranate: botany, horticulture, breeding. Horticultural Reviews, Vol 35.
16. Klein, J.D., S. Lurie, and R. Ben Arie. 1990. Quality and Cell Wall Components of ‘Anna’ and ‘Granny Smith’ Apples Treated with Heat, Calcium and Ethylene. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 115:954-958.
17. Knee, M. (ed.). 2002. Fruit Quality and Its Biological Basis. Sheffield Academic Press. CRC Press. Sheffield. UK. 279 p.
18. Laribi, AI., Palou, L., Taberner, V., Perez-Gago, M.B., 2012. Modified Atmosphere packaging to extend cold storage of pomegranate cv. ‘Mollar de Elche’. http:// www.academia.edu/2500799/.
19. Lurie S. 1998. Postharvest heat treatments Review. Postharvest Biology and Technolog, 14: 257-269.
20. Maghoumi M., Gomez P. A., Mostofi Y., Zamani Z., Artes-Hernandez F., and Artes F. 2013. Combined effect of heat treatment, UV-C and superatmospheric oxygen packing on phenolics and browning related enzymes of fresh-cut pomegranate arils. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 30: 1-8.
21. Mahajan B.V. C., Singh N.P., and Kumar M. 2013. Effect of different packaging films on shelf life and quality of pear fruits under super market conditions. Flora Research Spectrum, 2: 68-71.
22. Mirdehghan S. H., Rahemi M., and Serrano M. 2006. Prestorage heat treatment to maintain nutritive and functional properties during postharvest cold storage of pomegranate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54: 8495-8500.
23. Mirdehghan S.H., Rahemi M., Mart´ınez-Romero D., Guill´en F., Valverde J.M., Zapata P.J., Serrano M., Valero D. 2007. Reduction of pomegranate chilling injury during storage after heat treatment: Role of polyamines. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 44: 19-25.
24. Moradinezhad F., and Khayyat M. 2014. Effects of Intermittent Warming and Prestorage Treatments (Hot Water, Salicylic Acid, Calcium Chloride) on Postharvest Life of Pomegranate Fruit cv. ‘Shishe-Kab’ during Long-Term Cold Storage. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 1: 43-51.
25. Nanda S., sudhakar Rao D.V., and Krishnamurthy S. 2001. Effects of shrink film wrapping and storage temperature on the shelf life and quality of pomegranate fruits cv. Ganesh. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 22: 61-69.
26. Palou L., Crisosto C. H., and Garner D. 2007. Combination of postharvest antifungal chemical treatments and controlled atmosphere storage to control gray mold and improve storability of ‘Wonderful’ pomegranates. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 43: 133-142.
27. Paull R. E., and Chen N.J. 2000. Heat treatment and fruit ripening. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 21: 21-37.
28. Porat R., Weiss, B., Fuchs Y., Sandman A., and Ward G., 2008. Keeping quality of pomegranate fruit during prolonged storage and transport by MAP: new developments and commercial applications. Acta Horticulture, 804, 115–120.
29. Rabiei W., and Rahmani S. 2014. Effect of salicylic acid, calcium chloride and hot water treatments on quantitative, quality parameters and shelf life of pomegranate cv. ‘Mey-khosh’. Journal of Horticultural Science (Agricultural Science and Technology), 28(1): 107-115. (in Persian)
30. Ranjbar, H., Hasanpour, M., Asgari, M.A., Sameei Zadeh, H. and Baniasadi, A. 2007. The effects of calcium chloride, hot water treatment and polyethylene bag packaging on the storage life and quality of pomegranate (Cv Malas- Saveh). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 4 (2): 1-10.
31. Rastegari H. H., Tehranifar A., Nemati S. H., and Vazifeshenas M. R. 2014. The effect of Salicylic acid before harvest of fruit on post-harvest properties and shelf life of pomegranate. Journal of Horticultural Science (Agricultural Science and Technology), 28(3): 360-368. (in Persian)
32. Salahvarzi Y., and Tehranifar A. 2012.The effects of some herbal essence and polyethylene packaging on shelf life and quality of pomegranate cv. ‘Shishah-kap’. Journal of Horticultural Science (Agricultural Science and Technology), 27(3): 318-325. (In Persian)
33. Sayyari, M., Castillo, S., Valero, D., Diaz-Mula, H.M., Serrano, M., 2011. Acetyl salicylic acid alleviates chilling injury and maintains nutritive and bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during postharvest storage of pomegranates. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 60, 136–142.
34. Selcuk N., and Erkan M. 2015. Changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of sour–sweet pomegranates cv. ‘Hicaznar’ during long-term storage under modified atmosphere packaging. Journal of Postharvest Biology and Technology, 109: 30-29.
35. Shokrollah Fam, S., Hajilou, J., Zare, F., Tabatabaei, S.J. and Naghshiband Hasani, R. 2012. Effects of calcium chloride and salicylic acid on quality and shelf life of plum "golden drop" cultivar. Journal of Food Research, 2(1): 76-85
36. Shwartz, E., Glazer, I., Bar-Ya’, I., akov, Matityahu, I., Bar-Ilan, I., Holland, D., Amir, R., 2009. Changes in chemical constituents during the maturation andripening of two commercially important pomegranate accessions. Food Chemistry, 115, 965– 973.
37. Talaie, A., M.A. Asgari Sarcheshmeh, and F. Bahadoran. 2004. The Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Polyethylene Bag Packaging on the Storage Life and Quality of Pomegranate cv. ‘Malas-Saveh’. Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science, 35:2. (in Persian)
38. Tomas-Barberan, F.A., Espin, J.C., 2001. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81, 853–876.