غربالگری اکوتیپ‌های بید علفی پونه‌ای ایران از لحاظ ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

سازمان پژوهش های علمی و صنعتی ایران

چکیده

خصوصیات فیتوشیمیایی گیاهان دارویی بستگی به شرایط آب و هوایی منطقه تحت رویش، مرحله رشدی، عوامل ژنتیکی و غیره دارد، لذا مطالعه فلورهای وحشی در مناطقی با شرایط آب و هوایی مختلف مهم می‌باشد. تحقیق حاضر به غربالگری 16 اکوتیپ بید‌علفی پونه‌ای (Epilobium parviflorum) ایران از لحاظ ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی (AOX) می پردازد. مقدار فنل کل(TPH) ، فلاونوئید کل (TFL) و ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی به ترتیب با روش­های فولین- سیکالتو، کلرید آلومینیوم و قدرت احیای فریک (FRAP) اندازه‌گیری شد. تجزیه رگرسیون جهت بررسی رابطه بین ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی با ارتفاع و عرض جغرافیایی انجام شد و برای بررسی رابطه خطی بین متغیرها از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون استفاده گردید. میان اکوتیپ­های پارویفلروم همبستگی بالایی بین TPH و TFL (r=0.7)، بینAOX  با TPH (r=0.71) و AOX با TFL (r=0.73)  مشاهده گردید. تجزیه به مولفه‌های اصلی نشان داد، دو مولفه اول 87/87 درصد از کل تغییرات را توجیه می­کنند، سهم مولفه اول 13/62 درصد و مولفه‌ دوم 74/25 درصد بود. در مولفه اول TFL، TPH و AOX به ترتیب با ضرایب 78/0، 76/0 و 85/0 قرار گرفتند. بیشترین مقدار TPH، TFL و AOX مربوط به اکوتیپ چشمه سنگان و کمترین برای اکوتیپ کلیبر مشاهده گردید. 6 اکوتیپ دارای مقدار مطلوب TFL، TPH و AOX بودند. تجزیه رگرسیون ارتباطی را بین ظرفیت AOX با ارتفاع (R2=0.04) و نیز با عرض جغرافیایی (R2=0.14) نشان نداد. نتایج بیانگر وجود تنوع قابل ملاحظه‌ای بین اکوتیپ‌ها برای صفات تحت مطالعه بود که می‌تواند در برنامه‌های اصلاحی و حفاظت ژرم پلاسم بهره‌گیری شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Screening of Antioxidant Capacity of Epilobium parviflorum Ecotypes Grown in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • M. Mohammadi Bazargani
Tehran
چکیده [English]

 
Introduction: The phytochemical and biological properties of medicinal plants depend on the climatic conditions of the area under development, the growth stage, genetic factors and other factors. Therefore the study of the wild flora in the geographical areas with different climatic conditions is important. It has been proved that the extract of Epilobium has high antioxidant capacity, which is associated with a high concentration of flavonoids content. Studies on five species of Epilobium genus (E. parviflorum schreb., E. roseum schreb., E. tetragonum L., E. montanum L., E. angustifolium L.), had shown that E. parviflorum had the highest antioxidant capacity among studied species. The occurrence of E. parviflorum in wide range of altitudinal zones in Iran makes it as ideal species to study the variation of antioxidant capacity among ecotypes. The present study aims to screen Epilobium parviflorum ecotypes (n=16) of Iran in terms of antioxidant capacity (AOX).
Materials and Methods: Total phenol content (TPH), Total flavonoid (TFL), antioxidant capacity (AOX) and anthocyanin content (ACY) were measured by Folin- Ciocalteu, flavonoid-aluminum chloride (AlCl3), Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the differential PH methods, respectively. Regression analysis was used for studying the relationships between antioxidant capacity, altitude and latitude. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there is a linear relationship between variables.
Results and Discussion: There was a high correlation between total phenol content and total flavonoid in ecotypes (r = 0.7, P = 0.002, n = 16). There was a positive and significant correlation between AOX content with TPH (r = 0.71, P = 0.002, n = 16) and also between AOX with TFL (r = 0.73, P = 0.001, n = 16). According to several studies, high antioxidant capacity has been attributed to high concentrations of flavonoids and phenols, which is consistent with the results observed in this study. The results also showed that the Iranian E. parviflorum ecotypes had considerably TFL, TPH and AOX content as compare to previous reports on E. parviflorum (in other country) and also other Epilobium species. Principal component analysis showed that the two main components explained 87.87% total variation. The high contribution of the two first components suggested a considerable correlation between three phytochemical traits, the contribution of the first component alone was 62.13% and the portion of the second component was 25.74%. In the first component, TFL, TPH and AOX were with coefficients of 0.78, 0.77 and 0.88, respectively. The high contribution of the two first components had a significant relationship between three phytochemical traits. The ecotypes of E. parviflorum were clearly separated based on the first principal component. Ten ecotypes had a correlation with the first main component (PC1) shown by TFL, TPH and AOX. Among them six ecotypes had a positive correlation (r> 0.6) and 4 ecotypes had a negative correlation (r> 0.6) with the first main component (PC1). Thus, out of the 16 ecotypes of E. parviflorum in Iran, six ecotypes including EPP3, EPP6, EPP8, EPP10, EPP13 and EPP9 had the desired content of TFL, TPH and subsequently antioxidant capacity, most of which belonged to the Zagros and crossroad of Zagros and Alborz mountains. The ecotypes that did not have the desired content of TFL, TPH and AOX (negative correlation with the first main component, PC1) mostly belong to the Alborz Mountains. The highest levels of TPH, TFL and AOX capacity were observed for the Sangan ecotype with values of 1761, 32.64 mg/g DW and 93.50 mM/g DW, respectively, and the lowest was observed in Kaleybar ecotype. Out of 16 ecotypes, 6 ecotypes had the desired content of TFL, TPH, and subsequently AOX, most of which belonged to the Zagros and crossroad of Zagros and Alborz Mountains. Regression analysis showed no relation between AOX capacity with altitude (R2 = 0.04) and also with latitude (R2 = 0.14).
Conclusion: This research is the first study that screens AOX capacity by including multiple ecotypes (n=16) from E. parviflorum species to evaluate intra ecotypes phytochemical variation for E. parviflorum. We found positive and significant correlation between TFL, TPH and AOX. We did not find any significant correlation between TFL, TPH content and AOX capacity of E. parviflorum with altitude above sea. Our results also showed Iranian E. parviflorum ecotypes (especially Sangan ecotype, EPP10) have considerably TFL, TPH and AOX capacity compared to previous reports. The results of this study indicate that there is a remarkable variation among Iranian E. parviflorum ecotypes for the studied traits, which can be used to carry out breeding programs and protection of germplasm.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Altitude
  • Antioxidant
  • E. parviflorum
  • Flavonoid
  • Latitude
  • Phenolic acid
  • Phytochemical variation
1- Arredondo M., Blasina F., Echeverry C., Morquio A., Ferreira M., and et al. 2004. Cytoprotection by Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) DC and some of its main flavonoids against oxidative stress. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 91: 13-20.
2- Baert N., Kim J., Karonen M., and Salminen J.P. 2017. Inter-population and inter-organ distribution of the main polyphenolic compounds of Epilobium angustifolium. Phytochemistry 134: 54-63.
3- Blumthaler M., Ambach W., and Ellinger R. 1997. Increase in solar UV radiation with altitude. Journal of photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 39: 130-134.
4- Granica S., Piwowarski J.P., Czerwińska M.E., and Kiss A.K. 2014. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and traditional uses of different Epilobium species (Onagraceae): a review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 156: 316-346.
5- Hevesi Toth B. 2009. Phytochemical and in vitro biological evaluation of potentially active compounds in Epilobium species. Thesis of doctoral (Ph. D.) dissertation. Semmelweis University, Budapest.
6- Hevesi Toth B., Blazics B., and Kery Á. 2009. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 49: 26-31.
7- Jaakola L., Määttä-Riihinen K., Kärenlampi S., and Hohtola A. 2004. Activation of flavonoid biosynthesis by solar radiation in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) leaves. Planta 218: 721-728.
8- Kiss A., Kowalski J., and Melzig M.F. 2004. Compounds from Epilobium angustifolium inhibit the specific metallopeptidases ACE, NEP and APN. Planta Medica 70: 919-923.
9- Körner C. 2003. Alpine plant life: functional plant ecology of high mountain ecosystems; with 47 tables. Springer Science & Business Media.
10- Markham K.R., Ryan K.G., Bloor S.J., and Mitchell K.A. 1998. An increase in the luteolin: apigenin ratio in Marchantia polymorpha on UV-B enhancement. Phytochemistry 48: 791-794.
11- Miguel M.G. 2011. Anthocyanins: antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Journal of applied pharmaceutical Science 1: 7-15.
12- Monschein M., Jaindl K., Buzimkić S., and Bucar F. 2015. Content of phenolic compounds in wild populations of Epilobium angustifolium growing at different altitudes. Pharmaceutical Biology 53: 1576-1582.
13- Rohloff J., Uleberg E., Nes A., Krogstad T., Nestby R., and Martinussen I. 2015. Nutritional composition of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) from forest fields in Norway–Effects of geographic origin, climate, fertilization and soil properties. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 88: 274-289.
14- Seigler D.S. 2012. Plant secondary metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media.
15- Shikov A.N., Poltanov E.A., Dorman H.D., Makarov V.G., Tikhonov V.P., and Hiltunen R. 2006. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of commercial water-soluble willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.) extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 3617-3624.
16- Shikov A.N., Poltanov E.A., Dorman H.J.D., Makarov V.G., Tikhonov V.P., and Hiltunen R. 2006. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation of Commercial Water-Soluble Willow Herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.) Extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 3617-3624.
17- Spitaler R., Schlorhaufer P.D., Ellmerer E.P., Merfort I., Bortenschlager S., et al. 2006. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Arnica montana cv. ARBO. Phytochemistry 67: 409-417.
18- Steenkamp V., Gouws M., Gulumian M., Elgorashi E., and Van Staden J. 2006. Studies on antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of herbal remedies used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 103: 71-75.
19- Treben M. 1984. Health through God’s pharmacy, advice and experiences with medicinal herbs. Wilhelm Ennsthaler, Steyr, Austria.
20- Uleberg E., Rohloff J., Jaakola L., Trôst K., Junttila O., et al. 2012. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on yield and chemical composition of northern and southern clones of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60: 10406-10414.
21- Wojdyło A., Oszmiański J., and Czemerys R. 2007. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chemistry 105: 940-949.