معرفی نارنگی‌ جدید جهانگیر بر اساس ویژگی‌های فیزیکو‌شیمیایی و ارگانولپتیک برتر میوه

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

2 کارشناس‌ارشد فیزیولوژی گیاهی پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

چکیده

در ایران که مصرف سرانه مرکبات به صورت تازه‌خوری بالا است (متوسط 45 کیلوگرم) نیاز به ایجاد و معرفی ارقام جدید با ویژگی‌های کیفی مطلوب به صورت مستمر است. در این پژوهش ویژگی‌های فیزیکو‌شیمیایی و ارگانولپتیک میوه‌‌ی نارنگی جهانگیر حاصل تلاقی نارنگی کلمانتین (والد ماده) و پرتقال سالوستیانا (والد نر) (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka × C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) در مقایسه با نارنگی کلمانتین (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka) به عنوان شاهد روی پایه نارنج طی دو سال آخر منتج به معرفی رقم در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی مطالعه شد. ویژگی‌های فیزیکو‌شیمیایی و ارگانولپتیک میوه‌‌ها در زمان برداشت و به فواصل زمانی 20 و 40 روز از سردخانه (دمای 5 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت 85 درصد) ارزیابی شدند. نتایج نشان داد اندازه میوه (طول و دو قطر)، وزن، ‏میانگین قطرهای ‏حسابی، هندسی، معادل و هم‌ساز، مساحت رویه، حجم واقعی، ‏ضریب کرویت و سطح جانبی نارنگی جهانگیر به طور معنی‌داری بیش‌تر از کلمانتین بود. نارنگی جهانگیر مقادیر بالاتری L*، a*، b*، hue و C نسبت به شاهد کلمانتین داشت لیکن شاخص‌های a* و CCI جهانگیر کم‌تر بود. نارنگی جهانگیر پوست‌گیری آسان‌تر و تعداد بذر مشابه کلمانتین داشت. کاهش وزن میوه جهانگیر طی نگهداری کم‌تر از کلمانتین بود. میزان مواد جامد محلول (TSS) میوه جهانگیر در زمان برداشت و طی نگهداری بالاتر از کلمانتین بود. بعلاوه میزان اسیدیته کل (TA) (34/0 درصد) میوه جهانگیر نیز کم‌تر از میوه کلمانتین (45/0 درصد) بود. نسبت TSS به TA در نارنگی جهانگیر خیلی بالاتر (25/44) از کلمانتین (16/26) مشاهده شد. درصد عصاره میوه جهانگیر با 87/44 درصد بالاتر از کلمانتین با 12/40 و شاخص تکنولوژی نیز به ترتیب 45/6 و 67/4 بود. ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی گوشت میوه طی نگهداری کاهش یافت. میزان آسکوربیک‌اسید در جهانگیرکم‌تر از شاهد ولی میزان فنل گوشت بالاتر (43/0 میلی‌گرم در گرم) از کلمانتین (4/0 میلی‌گرم در گرم) بود. آنالیز مولفه اصلی نشان داد عمده نمونه‌های جهانگیر در قسمت چپ نمودار بودند که ویژگی‌هایی چون طعم، شیرینی، ظاهر خوب پوست و گوشت و پذیرش کلی میوه در این ناحیه غالب بود و مورد پذیرش بیش‌تری از سوی ارزیابان حسی واقع شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Introduction of Jahangir - a New Mandarin- Based on Elite Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Fruits

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Fattahi Moghadam 1
  • S.E. Seyedghasemi 2
  • T. Raiesi 3
1 Associate Professor, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
2 Master Science of Plant Physiology , Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The foreign and domestic markets are demanding for high quality citrus varieties. The physical and chemical properties of the newly released cultivars are also important for fresh market or processing. The fruit quality is a complex combination of size, firmness, taste, texture, pleasant aromas caused by a chemical compounds (soluble solid content, sugars, organic acids, aromas) and bioactive properties. Therefore, it is important to consider these indices for the introduction of a new cultivar. In this regard, the Citrus and Subtropical fruits Research Center has focused on improving its appearance, internal and organoleptic quality in releasing the new Jahangir cultivar compared to the Clementine as control.
Materials and Methods: In this study, Jahangir fruits a hybrid between Clementine mandarin (female parent) and Salustiana orange (male parent) (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tanaka × C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) was used for comparison with Clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex) Tanaka) as control during the last two years lead to the cultivar introduction. Fruits were randomly selected from different locatiosn on the tree (15 fruits from three trees) and evaluated at harvesting time (zero storage point). Then 30 fruits per box selected and placed in cold storage (5 °C, 85% RH). Different physico-biochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 0, 20 and 40 days intervals during storage. Characteristics evaluation were including fruit lenght, width, thickness, arithmetic, geometric, equivalent and harmonic means, fruit aspect ratio, sphericity, surface area, true volume, apparent volume, volume error, density, peel and pulp firmness, peel thickness, weight, juice percentage, seed number, peel color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma and CCI), total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), technological index (TI), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total phenol, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity during experiment.
Results and Discussion: Results showed that fruit size (length and two diameters), weight, means of arithmetic, geometric, equivalent and harmonic diameters, surface area and true volume of Jahangir mandarin were significantly higher than Clementine. The different mean diameters of each cultivar was the same as that equivalent diameter that is the most real mean fruit diameter. The higher spherical coefficient (>1) also indicated that Jahangir fruit was longer than the control. Additionally, aspect ratio of Jahangir was also higher than Clementine, which means that Jahangir fruit was a few flat than control. Jahangir had higher levels of L*, b*, C and hue than the control of clementine. In contrast, Jahangir's a* and CCI indices were lower than those of clementine. Therefore, except for L* which is slightly lower than citrus standard (65-70), other indices in both cultivars were conformity within the citrus standard range. Seeds of Jahangir were more than control but both were in the mid seed group (9-15 seeds) of citrus. Jahangir peel was also less easily peeled than control. The weight loss of Jahangir fruit was significantly (almost half) lower than that of clementine at each sampling but increased during storage. It seems Jahangir has a peel with higher density and adhesion than to clementine, which partly prevents the fruit from dehydration. The amount of TSS of fruit juice was higher than that of clementine at harvest and storage but increased in both cultivars during storage. In addition, TA (0.34%) was lower in Jahangir fruit than Clementine (0.45%). Therefore, the ratio of TSS to TA was much higher in Jahangir mandarin (44.25) than clementine (26.16). Juice percentage of Jahangir fruit (44.87%) was significantly higher than Clementine (40.12%). The high percentage of Jahangir fruit juice is a positive trait for this cultivar. Technology index changed depending on cultivar and also during storage. This index was higher in Jahangir fruit than in Clementine with 6.45 and 4.67, respectively. The antioxidant capacity only affected significantly by storage time which showed a decreasing trend during storage. Ascorbic acid content was only affected by cultivar and was higher in control than Jahangir. Lower levels of ascorbic acid in the Jahangir may be due to increased respiration that results in the elimination of ascorbic acid. The phenolic content of Jahangir fruit was higher (0.43 mg/g) than clementine (0.4 mg/g). PCA analysis showed that most of the Jahangir samples placed in the left part of the PCA graph which were dominated by the traits such as taste, sweetness, good peel and pulp appearance and overall acceptance and were more accepted by the sensory evaluators.
Conclusion: In this study, different qualitative characteristics of Jahangir fruit compared to Clementine which are important for the producers. Accordingly, the Jahangir fruit was larger in size but slightly flatter than the Clementine fruit. Jahangir fruit peel color indices were within the standard range of citrus fruits. Jahangir fruit is favored among commercial available mandarins due to ease of peeling, high juice percentage, technology index, vitamin C, phenol and antioxidant capacity. It also had better storability than Clementine because of less water loss and decline of organoleptic properties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivar release
  • Fruit quality
  • Nutrition value
  • Storability
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