بررسی اثرات کائولین و اسید سالیسیلیک بر عملکرد و برخی پاسخ‌های فیزیولوژیکی زیتون تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی و زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه

3 گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کمبود آب و تنش خشکی ناشی از آن یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدودکننده تولید محصولات کشاورزی در مناطق گرمسیر و نیمه گرمسیر است. در این آزمایش اثر کاربرد مستقل و برهمکنش اسید سالیسیلیک و کائولین بر تحمل به تنش خشکی در زیتون در دو سال 1398 و 1399 بررسی شده است. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. برای این کار درختان 14 ساله زیتون رقم ̕زرد̔ با استفاده از تیمارهای آب مقطر (شاهد)، یک میلی­مولار سالیسیلیک اسید، کائولین 2/5 درصد و کاربرد ترکیبی سالیسیلیک اسید+ کائولین محلول‌پاشی شده و پس ‌از آن تحت سه رژیم آبیاری متفاوت (100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی درخت) قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که در هر دو سال انجام آزمایش، با افزایش سطح کم‌آبیاری میزان عملکرد کل به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش (10 تا 30 درصد) یافت. کاهش سطح آبیاری منجر به افزایش نشت یونی و مالون دی آلدهید، فنل کل و پرولین شد. همچنین با کاهش سطح آبیاری محتوای آب نسبی و کلروفیل به طور معنی­داری کاهش یافت. نتایج نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی درختان زیتون با سالیسیلیک اسید و کائولین سبب کاهش نشت یونی و مالون دی آلدهید شده و محتوای رطوبت نسبی، کلروفیل، فنل و عملکرد کل را نسبت به شاهد بهبود دادند. همچنین محلول‌پاشی به‌وسیله سالیسیلیک اسید سبب افزایش معنی‌دار پرولین و کربوهیدرات کل شده و تیمار کائولین تأثیر معنی‌داری بر این صفات نداشت. در بیشتر صفات مورد ارزیابی استفاده هم‌زمان از تیمارهای سالیسیلک اسید و کائولین تأثیر هم‌افزایی نداشت. بنابراین برای کاهش آثار تنش در درخت زیتون استفاده از تیمارهای سالیسیلک یا کائولین به‌صورت جداگانه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Effects of Kaolin and Salicylic Acid on Yield and some Physiological Responses of Olives under Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Azizifar 1
  • V. Abdossi 1
  • R. Gholami 2
  • M. Ghavami 3
  • A. Mohammadi Torkashvand 1
1 Department of Horticultural Corps and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The availability of water for irrigating crops is one of the serious challenges at present and the future of the world. Drought stress has harmful effects on plant growth and productivity, though bringing some serious changes in plant physiology and biochemistry. Drought reduces plant growth and yield by having negative effects on plants water potential, cell division, photosynthesis activity, chlorophyll content, and protein synthesis. Although olive naturally tolerates drought, studies had shown that drought undermines its growth, yield and photosynthesis. Employing some appropriate transpiration-reducing approaches could induce olive tolerance towards water deficiency. In this regard, kaolin, through raising light reflection and diminishing the rate of transpiration, is able to lessen leaf temperature in the stressed plants. Salicylic acid (SA), as a strong signaling molecule in plants, regulates physiological and biochemical functions effective in defense mechanisms and also boosts biological and non-biological factors involved in augmenting plants.. The major roles of SA in drought- stressed plants are as follows: activation of antioxidant defense system, production of secondary metabolites, synthesis of osmolytes, optimization of mineral status and maintenance of proper balance between plant photosynthesis and growth. Although some information over effects of SA and kaolin individually on stressed plants is available, to the best of our knowledge, their simultaneous effects on plants under stressful conditions has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate different applications of SA and kaolin (i.e. individually and simultaneously) on field-grown olives under drought condition.
Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in Dalahu Olive Research Station located in Kermanshah province. This experiment was designed as a factorial experiment in the form of a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Factors included different foliar spraying (i.e. control, 1 mM SA, 2.5% kaolin, and a combination of them in the mentioned concentrations) and irrigation at three levels (i.e. 100, 75, and 50% of water requirement). Irrigation was performed based on three-day interval schedule according to the above method by measuring daily evapotranspiration and required volume of water by considering the plant coefficients of olives and by drip irrigation.
Results and Discussion: Although olive tree is a drought-tolerant plant, drought diminished its yield. The results of this study demonstrated a decrease in total yield of olive trees due to water deficit in different years. In this regard, water deficit under high temperature and low atmospheric humidity are believed to bring about a reduction in yield of drought-stressed olive. The results of this research showed that the foliar application of SA and kaolin on olive trees led to a reduction in ionic leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) and an increase in RWC, chlorophyll content, phenol and total yield, as compared to the control. Foliar application of SA caused a significant increase in proline content and total carbohydrates, while kaolin had no significant effect on aforementioned traits. It seems that a reduction in oxidative damage and an increase in yield of olive cultivars under different irrigations manifested several defense mechanisms induced by exogenous application of SA and kaolin. In this context, kaolin was found to protect leaves and fruits from harmful ultraviolet rays and this remarkably improves the performance of drought-stressed plants by a decrease in the ambient temperature of plants in order to mitigate deleterious effects of drought such as oxidative damage, chlorophyll degradation, and lowering RWC. These results have been substantiated for different olive cultivars at different parts of the world under this condition.
In the present study, SA increased chlorophyll content, RWC, proline content, carbohydrate and total phenol; as a result, the yield of SA- treated plants was higher than that in control plants. Similarly, Brito et al (5) reported that applying SA on drought-stressed olive improved osmolate accumulation, photosynthesis activities, RWC and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of phenolic compounds in SA-treated plants is believed to protect plants against stressful conditions. Therefore, the role of SA and kaolin in alleviating drought in favor of enhancing plants yield represents their efficiency under such condition. In the present study, we also employed a combination of SA and kaolin and the results showed no synergistic function between them on most traits. Therefore, to reduce the effects of drought on olive tree, it is recommended to utilize SA or kaolin separately.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbohydrate
  • Deficit irrigation
  • Oil percentage
  • Phenol
  • Proline
  1. Abdallah M.M.S., El-Bassiouny H.M.S., and AbouSeeda M.A. 2019. Potential role of kaolin or potassium sulfate as anti-transpirant on improving physiological, biochemical aspects and yield of wheat plants under different watering regimes. Bulletin of the National Research Centre 43: 134-142.
  2. Bates L.S., Waldren R.P., and Teare I.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39(1): 205-207.
  3. Brito C., Dinis L.T., Moutinho-Pereira J., and Correia C.M. 2019. Drought stress effects and olive tree acclimation under a changing climate. Plants 232: 1-20.
  4. Brito C., Dinis L.T., Meijón M., Ferreira H., Pinto G., Moutinho-Pereira J., and Correia C. 2018. Salicylic acid modulates olive tree physiological and growth responses to drought and rewatering events in a dose dependent manner. Journal of Plant Physiology 230: 21-32.
  5. Brito C., Dinis L.T., Silva E., Gonçalves A., Matos C., Rodrigues M.A., and Correia C. 2018. Kaolin and salicylic acid foliar application modulate yield, quality and phytochemical composition of olive pulp and oil from rainfed trees. Scientia Horticulturae 237: 176-183.
  6. Buysse J.A.N., and Merckx R. 1993. An improved colorimetric method to quantify sugar content of plant tissue. Journal of Experimental Botany 44(10): 1627-1629.
  7. Denaxa N.K., Roussos P.A., Damvakaris T., and Stournaras V. 2012. Comparative effects of exogenous glycine betaine, kaolin clay particles and Ambiol on photosynthesis, leaf sclerophylly indexes and heat load of olive cv. Chondrolia Chalkidikis under drought. Scientia Horticulturae 137: 87-94.
  8. Fathian F., Morid S., and Kahya E. 2015. Identification of trends in hydrological and climatic variables in Urmia Lake basin, Iran. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 119: 443–464.
  9. Fernandes-Silva A.A., Ferreira T.C., Correia C.M., Malheiro A., and Villalobos F.J. 2010. Influence of differentirrigation regimes on crop yield and water use efficiency of olive. Plant and Soil 333: 35–47.
  10. Gholami R., and Zahedi S.M. 2019. Identifying superior drought-tolerant olive genotypes and their biochemical and some physiological responses to various irrigation levels. Journal of Plant Nutrition 42: 2057-2069.
  11. Gholami R., and Zahedi S.M. 2019. Reproductive behavior and water use efficiency of olive trees (Olea europaea cv Konservolia) under deficit irrigation and mulching. Erwerbs-Obstbau 61: 331-336.
  12. Gholami R., Sarikhani H., and Arji I. 2017. Effects of deficit irrigation on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality in three olive oil cultivars. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 48: 191-201. (In Persian with English abstract)
  13. Giorio P., Sorrentino G., and d’ Andria R., 1999. Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in field-gown olive trees under water deficit. Environmental and Experimental Botany 42: 95–104.
  14. Gleen D.M. 2012. The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and applications in horticultural and agricultural crops. HortScience 47: 710-711.
  15. Gucci R., Lombardini L., and Tattini M. 1997. Analysis of leaf water relations in leaves of two olive (Olea europaea) cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity. Tree Physiology 17: 13-21.
  16. Guerfel M., Baccouri O., Boujnah D., Chaïbi W., and Zarrouk M. 2009. Impacts of water stress on gas exchange, water relations, chlorophyll content and leaf structure in the two main Tunisian olive (Olea europaea) cultivars. Scientia Horticultureae 119: 257–263.
  17. Hernndez M.L., Padilla M.N., Sicardo M.D., Mancha M., and Martnez-Rivas J.M. 2011. Effect of different environmental stresses on the expression of oleatedesaturase genes and fatty acid composition in olive fruit. Phytochemistry 72: 178–187.
  18. O.O.C. 2002. Methodology for the secondary characterization (agronomic, phonological, pomological and oil quality) of olive varieties held in collection. Project on conservation, characterization, collection of Genetic Resources in olive. International Olive Oil Council. 23p.
  19. Khaleghi E, Arzani K., Moallemi N., and Barzegar M. 2015. The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea) cv. ‘Zard’grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran. Food Chemistry 166: 35-41.
  20. Khan M.I.R., Fatma M., Per T.S., Anjum N.A., and Khan N.A. 2015. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science, 462: 1-17.
  21. Martinelli F., Remorini D., Saia S., Massai R., and Tonutti P. 2013. Metabolic profiling of ripe olive fruit in response to moderate water stress. Scientia Horticulturae 159: 52-58.
  22. Nakano A., and Uehara, Y. 1996. The effects of kaolin clay on cuticle transpiration in tomato. In International Symposium on Plant Production in Closed Ecosystems 440: 233-238.
  23. Nazar R., Umar S., Khan N.A., and Sareer O. 2015. Salicylic acid supplementation improves photosynthesis and growth in mustard through changes in proline accumulation and ethylene formation under drought stress. South African Journal of Botany 98: 84-94.
  24. Raskin I. 1992. Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 43: 439- 463.
  25. Showler, A.T. 2002. Effects of water deficit stress, shade, weed competition, and kaolin particle film on selected foliar free amino acid accumulations in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 28(3): 631-651.
  26. Singleton V.L., and Rossi J.A. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American journal of Enology and Viticulture 16(3): 144-158.
  27. Stewart R.R., and Bewley J.D. 1980. Lipid peroxidation associated with accelerated aging of soybean axes. Plant Physiology 65(2): 245-248.
  28. Strain H.H., and Svec W.A. 1966. Extraction, separation, estimation, and isolation of the chlorophylls. Chlorophylls 21-66.
  29. Talozi S., and Alwaked L. 2016. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation on the water demand and yield of olive trees. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 32: 55-62.
  30. Yordanov I., Velikova V., and Tsonev T. 2000. Plant responses to drought, acclimation, and stress tolerance. Photosynthetica 38(2): 171-186.