تأثیر کتیرا روی برخی خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیک و مرتبط با عملکرد دانه گیاه سیاهدانه (Nigella sativa L.) تحت شرایط خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

تعرق برای انجام فتوسنتز، فرآیندی ضروری است که با توجه به شرایط در مواردی می­تواند مضر باشد. بنابراین استفاده از مواد ضد تعرق می­تواند یکی از روش­های کارآمـد در کـاهش میزان اتلاف آب به واسطه تعـرق و راهکاری مؤثر برای کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی بر گیاه و تعدیل کاهش عملکرد ناشی از کمبود آب در نواحی خشک و نیمه خشک باشد. در همین راستا به­منظور بررسی اثر رژیم­های آبیاری و کاربرد غلظت­های مختلف کتیرا (تراوه خشک شده­ی طبیعی حاصل از برخی گونه­های Astragalus بر گیاه دارویی سیاهدانه (Nigella sativa L.)، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه کردستان در سال 1397 به­اجرا درآمد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل آبیاری در سه سطح 100 (آبیاری کامل)، 70 (تنش ملایم خشکی) و 40 (تنش شدید خشکی) درصد ظرفیت زراعی و محلول­پاشی کتیرا در شش غلظت صفر، 1/25، 2/5، 5، 7/5 و 10 گرم در لیتر بودند. نتـایج نشـان داد افـزایش شدت تنش خشکی (کاهش آبیاری) منجر به کاهش محتوای نسبی آب برگ، محتوای کلروفیل کل، کارآیی فتوسیستم II، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد کپسول در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه گردید. تأثیر کاربرد غلظت­های مختلف کتیرا در سطوح مختلف آبیاری متفاوت بود. در آبیاری کامل، غلظت 1/25 گرم در لیتر بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه مثبت بود. در تنش ملایم خشکی استفاده از غلظت­های بیشتر کتیرا تا غلظت 5 گرم در لیتر بهترین کارآیی را داشت و غلظت­های بیشتر از آن به تأثیر معکوس بر صفات مورد بررسی منجر گردید. در تنش شدید خشکی، کاربرد غلظت­های بیشتر کتیرا مفید بود و مصرف کتیرا تا غلظت 7/5 گرم در لیتر باعث بهبود صفات بررسی شده گردید، ولی مصرف غلظت 10 گرم در لیتر بر صفات مذکور تأثیر منفی داشت. با توجه به تأثیری که غلظت مناسب کاربرد این ماده در بهبود صفات اندازه‌گیری شده داشت و توانست عملکرد دانه را نسبت به عدم مصرف کتیرا در شرایط تنش متوسط و شدید خشکی به‌ترتیب 11/6 و 28/2 درصد افزایش دهد، احتمالا کتیرا می­تواند به­عنوان یک ماده ضدتعرق جدید با منشاء طبیعی معرفی گردد و کاربرد آن در مناطقی که با تنش خشکی مواجه هستند می­تواند مفید و قابل توصیه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Tragacanth on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics related to Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Yield under Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Kiani 1
  • Y. Sohrabi 2
1 Ph.D. student in Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In fact, drought is stress that restricts the plant photosynthesis and also it causes of chlorophyll content changes and damage to photosynthetic structures. One of the important reasons that environmental stresses such as drought reduce the growth and photosynthesis ability of the plant is a disturbance in the balance between production and removal of free oxygen radicals. Transpiration is a necessary process for photosynthesis and growth of plants but depending on the conditions that may be harmful in some cases. Therefore, the use of anti-transpirant can be one of the most effective methods for reducing the amount of water lost through transpiration and adjustment the reduction of the yield due to water deficiency in arid and semi-arid regions. Climate change happened on earth and the intensification of stresses caused by it, especially drought stress in arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran. Therefore, finding strategies that can reduce the effects of water shortages on plant growth and yield can be very important. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes and application of different concentrations of tragacanth (naturally dried exudate from some Astragalus species) on black cumin plant.   
Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications in a greenhouse of the Agriculture College of Kurdistan University in 2018. The experimental factors were including irrigation at three levels of 100% (full irrigation), 70% (mild drought stress), and 40% (severe drought stress) of field capacity of soil and spraying with tragacanth extract at six concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 g/L. Spraying of this material was done using a back sprayer (Shark model) with a constant pressure of 2.4 bar and a volume of 250 liters of water per hectare., The normality test was performed using the Mini Tab software, before the data were analyzed. After ensuring the normality of data, analysis of variance was performed using SAS ver. 9.3. LSD (Least significant difference) was used to compare the mean of treatments. The graphs are drawn using Excel software.   
Results and Discussion: The results showed that increased drought stress intensity (irrigation reduction) led to the reduced leaf relative water content, Total chlorophyll content, efficiency of photosystem II, plant height, number of capsules per plant, mean number of seeds per plant, biological yield and grain yield. The positive effects of tragacanth consumption on reducing and modifying the effects of drought stress on different levels of irrigation and different concentrations of tragacanth were different. In the present study, under full irrigation conditions, lower concentrations of tragacanth were useful, while in drought stress conditions, higher concentrations of tragacanth (except 10 g/L) were useful. In full irrigation, the concentration of 1.25 g/L was positive for all studied traits. In mild drought stress, the use of higher concentrations of tragacanth up to 5 g/L had the best effect and more concentrations resulted in a reverse effect on studied traits. In severe drought stress, the use of more concentrations of tragacanth extract was beneficial and improved the studied traits up to 7.5 g/L, but 10 g/L had a negative effect on these traits.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the different effects of various concentrations of tragacanth material in different levels of irrigation on studied traits of black cumin. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of different concentrations of tragacanth gum was completely dependent on the plant's water status. Therefore, using higher concentrations of tragacanth gum in drought stress conditions had a more positive effect on the plant, and vice versa, using a lower concentration of this material was useful in full irrigation. The effect of tragacanth gum on reducing and modifying the effects of drought stress in different plants requires further studies and extensive research. Tragacanth gum can be introduced as a new anti-transpirant agent with natural origin and its application can be useful and recommended in areas exposed to drought stress.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anti-transpirant agent
  • Chlorophyll
  • Grain yield
  • Photosystem II efficiency
  • Relative water content
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