عنوان مقاله [English]
While grapes are considered as non-climacteric fruits, during the post-harvest stages, due to the softening of the tissue, it is very prone to decay, which shortens its post-harvest life. Today, due to the desire of consumers to use high quality food, the use of biodegradable films and coatings with antimicrobial properties, is a suitable alternative to synthetic preservatives, in order to maintain food security and prevent wastage of significant capital. Edible coatings are edible thin layers that are used to increase the shelf life and quality of fruits. This material increases the quality and health of the product by creating a semi-permeable barrier to water vapor and oxygen and carbon dioxide gases between the product and the environment, and to prevent anaerobic respiration, it absorbs a certain amount of gases and to this Sequence increases product shelf life. One of the most important ways to increase the shelf life and maintain the quality of agricultural products, especially fruits, is the use of edible coatings on the crop surface. Chitosan is one of the most important natural derivatives of chitin, of which about 50% of its acetyl’s groups have been removed. Due to the fact that Aloe vera gel has no taste and odor, can be considered a good option as a cover for fruits after harvest and due to its elasticity and strength solution in water, as a suitable layer on the product. Located and protects the fruit from mechanical damage and moisture loss.
Material and Methods
In this study, 12-year-old mature grape trees of ‘Asgari’ cultivar in the scaffolding garden of Abestan region of Khorramabad city in 1398 were studied. In the pre-harvest stage, chitosan was sprayed on the tree and in the post-harvest stage, Aloe vera gel was applied by dipping the fruit in Aloe vera gel in the laboratory. After treatment, the fruits were stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 ± 0.5 ° C and were examined at different time stages for quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the fruit. 20 identical grape trees (in terms of fruit size and load, with 50 to 70 annual branches in 8-14 buds) selected and grape clusters with different concentrations of chitosan (control (distilled water), 2 and 3 Percentage of chitosan) at different stages of growth (fruit set), 35 and 50 days later) were sprayed directly with 4 liters per vine, by hand sprayer (2 ml Tween 80% was added as the active surfactant). For this stage, immediately after harvesting the grapes, take them to the laboratory and immerse them in concentrations (zero, 25 and 33%) of Aloe vera gel for 10 to 20 seconds and then in the air. They dried. Then, grape fruits weighing about 360-300 g in each experimental unit were stored for 28 days at 4 ° C and examined. This study was performed as a factorial experiment (2 factors) in a completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor is the effect of the treatments studied in seven levels including: control, 2% chitosan (CTS 2%), 3% chitosan (CTS 3%), chitosan 2% + Aloe vera gel 25% (AVG 25% + CTS 2%), chitosan 3% + Aloe vera gel 25% (AVG 25% + CTS 3%), 2% chitosan + 33% Aloe vera gel (AVG 33% + CTS 2%), chitosan 3% + Aloe vera gel 33% (AVG 33% + CTS 3%) and the second factor was storage time at five levels (zero, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after harvest). Data analysis was performed using SAS software and a significant difference between treatments for each trait with a minimum significant difference at the probability level = 0.05 α was determined.
Results and Discussion
The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of treatment and storage time on the desired traits was significant at the level of one percent. Fruits treated with chitosan and Aloe vera gel had higher texture firmness, taste index, phenolic content, antioxidant activity and titratable acids and caries index and pH were lower than the control. The highest content of phenol, antioxidant, flavor index and titratable acidity in all five measurement times belonged to 2% chitosan treatments with both concentrations of Aloe vera gel (25 and 33%) and the lowest amount belonged to the control treatment. In control treatment, the percentage of caries index increased during storage and in grapes treated with chitosan and Aloe vera gel, the caries process was slower and the lowest rate of caries was observed in 2% chitosan treatment with aloe vera gel on the 14th day. In general, it was observed that pre-harvest application of chitosan and post-harvest Aloe vera gel increase the post-harvest life of ‘Asgari’ grapes and improve its quality traits. Chitosan creates a barrier with selective permeability to oxygen and carbon dioxide gases, and by placing carbon dioxide at a higher level and reducing oxygen, it creates a modified atmosphere around the fruit, which reduces respiration and ethylene production. As a result, it reduces the aging process and reduces the consumption of organic acids and sugars and prevents the increase of pH. Low pH prevents browning of the fruit due to the activity of catechins and chlorogenic acid enzymes. Aloe vera gel coating maintains and increases the antioxidant capacity of the whole fruit by reducing fruit juice loss, reducing respiration, reducing ethylene production and delaying aging.
The combined treatment of chitosan 2% and Aloe vera gel (25 and 33%) increased fruit firmness, titratable acidity, taste index, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of grapes and reduced pH and caries index. Application of these treatments increased the post-harvest life of ‘Asgari’ grapes by 14 days, so it can be stated that the use of chitosan in the pre-harvest stage and the use of Aloe vera gel in the post-harvest stage as biodegradable and natural compounds to increase Shelf life of ‘Asgari’ grape fruit is recommended.